Grammar, Syntax Back cover copy "Deeply informed, lucid, and careful, this revision of the outstanding original carries the student from core concepts to topics at the borders of inquiry. A most valuable contribution. In this third edition, new topics are added, discussions are updated, additional exercises are included, and online resources are enhanced. Authoritative coverage spans phrase structure, the lexicon, Case theory, movement, covert movement, locality conditions, VP shells, and control. New chapters cover auxiliaries, ellipsis, and non-configurational languages. For the first time, an optional companion Workbook is also available; the table of contents correlates with the textbook and is designed to help offer students practice at analyzing syntactic structure.

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Presupposing no prior knowledge on the part of the reader, each volume sets out the fundamental skills and knowledge of the field, and so provides the ideal educational platform for further study in linguistics. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act , without the prior permission of the publisher.

A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Furthermore the publisher ensures that the text paper and coverboard used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishers, visit our website: www.

The ReadSmart? Where do the Rules Come From? Acquisition 4. Choosing among Theories about Syntax 6. The Scientific Method and the Structure of this Textbook 7. Open vs. Closed; Lexical vs. Functional 3. Closed Parts of Speech 3. Subcategories and Features 4. Summary Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 35 35 36 36 38 39 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 46 46 47 49 52 53 54 54 58 61 61 64 64 66 69 70 72 77 79 79 82 84 85 86 89 3 Constituency, Trees, and Rules 0.

Introduction Rules and Trees 1. Doing problems with word-by-word glosses A2. Doing problems without word-by-word glosses Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets ix 89 90 92 93 94 94 99 4 Structural Relations 0.

Introduction The Parts of a Tree Domination 2. Precedence 4. C-command 5. Grammatical Relations 6. Introduction 1. The Notions Coindex and Antecedent 2.

Binding 3. Locality Conditions on the Binding of Anaphors 4. The Distribution of Pronouns 5. The Distribution of R-expressions 6. The Base X-bar Theory Introduction Bar-level Projections 1. Generalizing the Rules: The X-bar Schema 3. Complements, Adjuncts, and Specifiers 3. Some Definitional Housekeeping 5. Parameters of Word Order 6.

Drawing Trees in X-bar Notation 6. Determiner Phrases DPs 2. A Descriptive Tangent into Clause Types 3. Complementizer Phrases CPs 4. Tense Phrases TPs 5. The Lexicon 4. Expletives and the Extended Projection Principle 5. Do-support 4. Multiple Auxiliaries and Affix-hopping in English 4. A Puzzle for the Theory of Theta Roles 2. Passives 3. Case 4. Raising: Reprise 5.

Passives: Reprise 6. Closing Up a Loose End 7. Conclusion Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets xii Preface and Acknowledgments Challenge Problem Sets 11 Wh-movement 0. Echo Questions Wh-in-situ in English 5. The Problem of Ditransitive Verbs 2.

Light Verbs 3. Object Shift 4. Introduction Raising vs. Control 1. Control Theory 4. Preface and Acknowledgments F-structure 4.

Assorted Phenomena 5. Features 2. The Lexicon 3. Rules, Features, and Trees 4. Binding 5. On one hand, this is often the truth: each author shows their own particular spin or emphasis.

This is certainly true of this textbook. One linguist may prefer a little more on binding theory, and a little less on control, etc. I did this on purpose, however, to give students a chance to absorb the fundamentals before challenging the issues. This is a textbook, not a scholarly tome, so its aim is to reach as many students as possible. The style is deliberately low key and friendly. I encourage instructors to assign these, and students to do them, as they form an important part of the textbook.

Instructors may note that if a favorite topic is not dealt with in the body of the text, a problem set may very well treat the question. A quick word on the level of this textbook: This book is intended as an introduction to syntactic theory. It takes the student through most of the major issues in Principles and Parameters, from tree drawing to constraints on movement. While this book is written as an introduction, some students have reported it to be xvi Preface and Acknowledgments challenging.

I use this text in my upper division undergraduate introduction to syntax with success, but I can certainly see it being used in more advanced classes. I hope instructors will flesh out the book, and walk their students through some of the thornier issues. This textbook has grown out of my lecture notes for my own classes.

Needless to say, the form and shape of these notes have been influenced in terms of choice of material and presentation by the textbooks my own students have used. While the book you are reading is entirely my fault, it does owe a particular intellectual debt to the following three textbooks, which I have used in teaching at various times: Cowper, Elizabeth A Concise Introduction to Syntactic Theory: The Government and Binding Approach.

Chicago: Chicago University Press. Oxford: Blackwell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Writing this book has given me new appreciation for the difficulty of this task and their presentation of the material has undoubtedly influenced mine. Sadly, during the final stages of putting the first edition of this text together, my dissertation director, teacher, mentor, and academic hero, Ken Hale passed away after a long illness.

Ken always pushed the idea that theoretical syntax is best informed by cross-linguistic research; while at the same time, the accurate documentation of languages requires a sophisticated understanding of grammatical theory. These were important lessons that I learned from Ken and I hope students will glean the significance of both by reading this text. While I was writing this book and much other work Ken gave me many comments and his unfettered support.

He was a great man and I will miss him terribly. This, the second edition of this book, is considerably different from the first edition. Here is a brief list of the major differences between the two editions. This list is not comprehensive, many more minor differences can be found. The exercise sections of the chapters are now organized differently and are greatly expanded.

Exercises are presented in the order that the material appears in the chapter. I have attempted to categorize each exercise for level and type. There are two types of problem sets: General and Challenge. These two types roughly correspond to the exercises that I assign to my regular students and my honors students respectively.

Challenge Problem Sets often challenge the straightforward presentation of the material in the main body of the text. The former chapter 2 on structure and parts of speech has been split into two chapters.


Syntax : a generative introduction



Syntax : A Generative Introduction


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