FBR technologyi, conventional thermal plants. The present cost of nuclear wlm coal-ttred power plant, can be further reduced by standardisingpl4nt design and shifting from heavy wate,rreactorto light water reactortechnology. Typical power densities 1MWm3 in fission reactor cores are: gas cooled 0. O, pressurizedwater Fusion - Core Coolant Containment Fig.
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FBR technologyi, conventional thermal plants. The present cost of nuclear wlm coal-ttred power plant, can be further reduced by standardisingpl4nt design and shifting from heavy wate,rreactorto light water reactortechnology.
Typical power densities 1MWm3 in fission reactor cores are: gas cooled 0. O, pressurizedwater Fusion - Core Coolant Containment Fig. Fusion is futuristic. Generation of electricity via fusion would solve the long-tenn energy needs of the world with minimum environmental problems. Considering radioactive wastes, the impact of fusion reactors would be much less than the fission reactors. In case of successin fusion technologysometime in the distant future or a breakthroughin the pollution-free solarenergy,FBRs would becomeobsolete.
However, there is an intense need today to develop FBR technology as an insuranceagainst failure to deverop these two technologies. There is a fear. If this happensthere could be serious energy crisis in the third world countries which have pitched their hopes on nuclear energy to meet their burgeoningenergy needs.
France with 78Voof its power requirement from nuclear sources and Canadaare possibly the two countries with a fairty clean record of nuclear generation. India needs to watch carefully their design, constructionand operating strategiesas it is committed to go in a big way for nuclear generation and hopes to achieve a capacity of 10, MW by z0ro AD.
But we must adopt more conservative strategiesin design, constructionand operationof nuclearplants. World scientistshave to adopt of different reaction safety strategy-may be to discover additives to automatically inhibit feaction beyond cr;ii"at rather than by mechanically inserted control rods which have possibilitiesof several primary failure events. Magnetohydrodynamic MHD Generation In thermal generation of electric energy, the heat released by the fuel is converted to rotational mechanical energy by means of a thermocvcle.
The ry mechanicalenergy is then used to rotate the electric generator. Thus two stages of energy conversion are involved in which the heat to mechanical energy conversion has inherently low efficiency. Also, the rotating machine has its associatedlossesand maintenanceproblems.
In MHD technology, cornbustionof fuel without the need for mechanicalmoving parts. In a MHD generator,electrically conducting gas at a very high temperature is passed in a strong magnetic fleld, thereby generatingelectricity. High temperature is needed to iontze the gas, so that it has good eiectrical conductivity. The conductinggas is obtainedby burning a fuel and injecting a seeding materials such as potassium carbonate in the products of combustion.
The principle of MHD power generation is illustrated in Fig. Abotrt 50Voefficiency can be achievedif the MHD generatoris operated in tandem with a conventional steam plant. There has been some use of geothermalenergy in the form of steam coming from undergroundin the USA, Italy, New Zealand,Mexico, Japan, Philippines and some other countries.
Another geothermal field has been located at Chumantang. There are a number of hot springsin India, but the total exploitableenergy potential seemsto be very little.
Ttre present installed geothermal plant capacity in the world is about MW and the total estimatedcapacityis immenseprovided heat generatedin the w I volcanic regionscan be utilized. Since the pressureand temperaturesare low, the efficiency is even less than the conventionalfossil fuelled plants,but the capital costs are less and the fuel is available free of cost.
Most of the new sources some of them in fact have been known and used for centuries now! In this section, we shall discuss the possibilities and potentialities of various methods of using solar energy.
Wind Power Winds are essentiallycreated by the solar heating of the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made since to use wind to generateelectric energy and developmentis still going on. However, technoeconomicfeasibility has yet to be satisfactorilyestablished. Wind as a power source is attractivebecauseit is plentiful, inexhaustible and non-polluting. Fnrther, it does not impose extra heat burden on the Control environment.
Unlbrtunately, it is non-steadyand undependable. Methods have also been found to generateconstant frequencypower with varying wind speedsand consequentlyvarying speeds of wind mill propellers. Wind power may prove practical for small power needs in isolated sites.
But for maximum flexibility, it should be used in conjunction with other methods of power generationto ensurecontinuity. For wind power generation, there are three types of operations: 1. Small, 0. Medium, kW for comrnunities 3. Large, 1. Introduction 2. There are always periods without wind. The installed capacity as on Dec. The conesponding world figure is Mw, rhe bulk of which is in Europe 7UVo.
It has the advantageof beingfree of cost,non-exhaustible and completelypollution-free. On the other hand,it has severalcrrawbacks-energy density pei unit area is very row, it is available for only a part of the day, and cl,oudy and, hazy atmospheric conditions greatly reduce the energy received.
Therefore, harnessing solar energyfor electricitygeneration,challengingtechnologicalproblems exist,the most important being that of the collection and concentration of solar energy and its conversion to the electrical form through efficient and comparatively economicalmeans. At present, two technologiesare being developedfor conversion of solar energyto the electrical form.
However, there are considerableengineeringdifficulties in building a single tracking bowi with a diarneterexceeding30 m to generateperhaps kw. Electricity may be generatedfrom a Solar pond by using a special. A solar pond at Ein Borek in Israel proclucesa steady kW fiorn 0. Solar power potential is unlimited, however, total capacityof about MW is being planned. Direct Conversion to Electricity Photovoltaic Generation This technologyconvertssolar energyto the electrical form by meansof silicon wafer photoelectriccells known as "Solar Cells".
Their theoreticalefficiency is about 25Vobut the practical value is only about I5Vo. But that does not matter as solar energy is basically free of cost. The chief problem is the cost and maintenanceof solar cells. With the likelihood of a breakthroughin the large scale production of cheap solar cells with amorphoussilicon, this technology may competewith conventional methodsof electricity generation,particularly as conventionalfuels becomescarce.
Solar energy could, at the most, supplementup to 5-r0vo of the total energy demand. It has been estimatedthat to produce kwh per year, the necessarycells would occupy about0. This is equally true with many other unconventional sourcesas well as sourceslike wind. Fluctuatingsourceswith fluctuating loads complicatestill further the electricity supply. Wave Energy The energyconientof sea wavesis very high.
In India, with severalhundreds of kilometersof coast line, a vast sourceof energyis available. The power in the wave is proportionalto the squareof the anrplitudeand to the period of the motion. Though the engineeringproblems associatedwith wave-powerare formidable, the amountof energythat can be harnessedis large and developmentwork is in progress alsoseethe sectionon HydroelectricPower Generation,page Sea wave power estimated poterrtial is MW.
This can provide a continuallyreplenishedstoreof thermal energy which is in principle available fbr conversion to other energy forms.
OTEC refers to the conversion of someof this thermal energy into work and thence 50, Mw. Biofuels The material of plants and animals is called biomass, which may be transformed by chemical and biological processesto produce intermediate biofuels sttch as methane gas, ethanol liquid or charcoal solid.
Biomass is burnt to provide heat for cooking, comfort heat space heat , crop drying, tactory processesand raising steamfor electricity production and transport. There are about community biogas plants and tamily size biogas plants are 3. Total biomass power harnessedso far is MW. Renewableenergy programmesare specially designedto meet the growing energy needs in the rural areas for prornoting decentralized and hybrid dcvelopmentst. It would be through this integration of energy conservationefforts with renewable energy programmesthat India would be able to achievea smooth transition from fossil fuel economy to sustainablerenewableenergy basedeconomy and bring "Energy for ali" for ec;uitableand environrnental friendly sustainabledevelopment.
Saxena Director, I. Vinod Kumar, Head, Elect. Srivastava Prof. Anand Dr. Dubey Er. Bharat Gupta Preface The impact of computers, particularly over last four decades, has changed practices in electrical engineering beyond recognition even though the process is not yet complete.
Modern Power Systems Analysis D P Kothari I J Nagrath
These checks may be carried out continuously or at specific instances, for example, on start-up Carefree handling: protection of aircraft from both departure and exceedance of loading limits, regardless of pilot-input demands, through the functionality of the flight control system Certification: process for demonstrating that system safety is satisfactory for flight operation Characteristic equation: polynomial defining the linear-stability characteristics of the system defined by setting the denominator of a transfer function equal to zero Classical control: range of design and analysis techniques developed early in the 20th century, principally the methods referred to as Bode, Nyquist, Nichols, R o o t - L o c u s. Clearance: see certification Closed-loop control: outputs from the aircraft or system are measured and fed back to provide corrective action Command path: part of control system between physical input e. Often it is understood that the system possessses significant interaction or cross-coupling Multiplex: having several hardware lanes to enable detection and isolation of equipment failures Multivariable control: theory and techniques for addressing multi-input multi-output systems Natural frequency damped : the frequency at which a system will tend to respond when excited by a sudden input Nichols chart: frequency response rectangular plot with gain in decibels dB plotted against phase in degrees and with frequency varying as a parameter. Fielding and R. Luckner 1.
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