One thing that really impressed them was the greater frequency and intensity of PDAs— public displays of affection—between romantic couples in Italy, compared with the U. Cocktail parties in international meeting places such as the United Nations can resemble an elaborate insect mating ritual as diplomats from different countries advance, withdraw, and sidestep. When Americans talk, walk, and dance, they maintain a certain distance from others. Culture, however, is not static, as is suggested by this recent account of hugging behavior in American schools.

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One thing that really impressed them was the greater frequency and intensity of PDAs— public displays of affection—between romantic couples in Italy, compared with the U. Cocktail parties in international meeting places such as the United Nations can resemble an elaborate insect mating ritual as diplomats from different countries advance, withdraw, and sidestep.

When Americans talk, walk, and dance, they maintain a certain distance from others. Culture, however, is not static, as is suggested by this recent account of hugging behavior in American schools. Illustrating Il Illlus Ill l stttrating cultural ccul cultu ultura ral al techal tech t chhnolo nol nolo nological o ogggical aadaptation daptatio dda daptation io oonn wou would uldd bbee a pres ul ppre pr pressurized esssuriz rizzed zed aair ai airrplane plan ane nee cabin cabin n equipped e d with wi with thh oxygen ooxygeen n masks.

There T Th are arree threee ways way off adapting wa aadaptin adaaptin ptin in nng biolo biologicall biologically loog ogical ogi ogic icall call allly to highh aaltitudes altitudes: ss: genetic i adaptation, d i long-term l physiological h i l i l adaptad tion, and short-term physiological adaptation. First, native populations of high-altitude areas, such as the Andes of Peru and the Himalayas of Tibet and Nepal, seem to have acquired certain genetic advantages for life at very high altitudes.

The Andean tendency to develop a voluminous chest and lungs probably has a genetic basis. Second, regardless of their genes, people who grow up at a high altitude become physiologically more efficient there than genetically similar people who have grown up at sea 4 PART 1 Introduction to Anthropology erational differences involving the propriety of PDAs and concerns about sexual harassment.

But now there is also the bear claw, when a boy embraces a girl awkwardly with his elbows poking out. You just get right in there and jump in. Girls embracing girls, girls embracing boys, boys embracing each other—the hug has become level llev le vel ell would wou wo wouldd be. Third, Th hird hird, hir hird rdd,, humans hu nnss also have hhuman hhav haav ve the capacity ccaapacity ap ty for apa short-term sho ort-te oort-term rt-term r erm rm m or o immediate immedia imm mm meedia med medi diaaate physiological physiooological adaptation.

Thus, Th h when h llowlanders l d arrive i iin the h hi highlands, hl d they hl h immediately increase their breathing and heart rates. Hyperventilation increases the oxygen in their lungs and arteries. As the pulse also increases, blood reaches their tissues more rapidly. These varied adaptive responses—cultural and biological—all fulfill the need to supply an adequate amount of oxygen to the body.

As human history has unfolded, the social and cultural means of adaptation have become increasingly important. In this process, humans have the favorite social greeting when teenagers meet or part these days.

And schools from Hillsdale, N. And not hugging? LaGuardia High School in Manhattan. Comforting as the hug may be, principals across the country have clamped down. White School, a junior high school in Hillsdale, N. Schools that have limited hugging invoked longstanding rules against public displays of affection, meant to maintain an atmosphere of academic seriousness and prevent unwanted touching, or even groping.

Amy L. African American boys and men have been hugging as part of their greeting for decades, deeevvised devised devi ddev v sed diverse diver di ddiv ivers iv vers vver rse w rs waayys off co ways copi coping opin pin ing with w thee range range ra ge oof en environments nnvir vi v ronm viro viron onm o m ments th tthey hhe ha hey havee ooccup oc occupied piieedd iin n time timee an aand nd spa space. Th rate T The tee of o cultu cultural cult cult ltuuural adapt adaptation pttati ptation tatio tation tion on aand change ch hhaaange has ass accelac acc e erated, particularly ppa particula arti articula rtic i ar arl arly rly lyy during ddurin duri urin innng the last lastt 10, la , years.

However, it took only a few thousand years for food production the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals , which originated some 12,—10, years ago, to replace foraging in most areas.

Between and b. These were large, powerful, and complex societies, such as ancient Egypt, that conquered and governed large geographic areas. Carrie Osbourne, a sixth-grade teacher at Claire Lilienthal Alternative School, said hugging was a powerful and positive sign that children are inclined to nurture one another, breaking down barriers. As much as hugging is a physical gesture, it has migrated online as well.

Facebook applications allowing friends to send hugs have tens of thousands of fans. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited. Throughout Thro Throu rou oughout u human huum uman uman maan n history, h history y, major y, m r innovations iinn nnovatio nn ion onns n have have spread spread sp d at a the thhee expense eex see of of ear ea earlier rrlier ones ones.

Each ec economic coono onomic no revolution l i has h had h d social i l andd cultural l l repercussions. Nowadays, even remote villagers experience world forces and events. Chapter 1 What Is Anthropology? Linguistic anthropologists may reconstruct the basics of ancient languages by studying modern ones. The subdisciplines influence each other as members of the different subfields talk to each other, share books and journals, and associate in departments and at professional meetings.

General anthropology explores the basics of human biology, society, and culture and considers their interrelations. Anthropologists share certain key assumptions. A comparative, cross-cultural approach is essential.

They are sociocultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology. Anthropological archaeology reconstructs lifeways of ancient and more recent societies through analysis of material remains.

Biological anthropology studies human biological variation through time and across geographic space. Linguistic anthropology examines language in its social and cultural contexts.

Of the four subfields, cultural anthropology has the largest membership. Most departments of anthropology teach courses in Cultural Forces Shape all four subfields. Biocultural refers to using and There are historical reasons for the inclusion of combining both biological and cultural perspectives the four subfields in a single discipline in North and approaches to analyze and understand a particuAmerica.

The origin of anthropology as a scientific lar issue or problem. Early American determining how human bodies grow and develop.

Interest in the origins and diversity of physical well-being and attractiveness. Physical Native Americans brought together studies of cusactivities, including sports, which are influenced by toms, social life, language, and physical traits. For example, North Anthropologists still are pondering such questions American girls are encouraged to pursue, and thereas these: Where did Native Americans come from?

What are the linguistic, ming, diving, and many other sports. Why are people encouraged pline. Answers to key questions in to excel as athletes in some nations anthropology often require an but not others? Why do people in understanding of both human biolsome countries invest so much time ogy and culture and of both the past and effort in competitive sports that and the present.

Each subfield their bodies change significantly as a considers variation in time and result? Cultural and archaeological ness and propriety influence paranthropologists study among many ticipation and achievement in sports.

Archaeologists have especially concerned with the history compete but to keep trim and fit. Parker, or Ha-sa-noan-da, was a especially in female buttocks and past. Biological anthropologists Seneca Indian who made important hips.

Brazilian men have had sigexamine evolutionary changes in contributions to early anthropology. Schmitt won the event and a gold medal, setting an Olympic record. How might years of competitive swimming affect the human body? Years of swimming sculpt a distinctive physique: an enlarged upper torso, a massive neck, and powerful shoulders and back.

Successful female swimmers tend to be big, strong, and bulky. For women, Brazilian culture prefers ample hips and buttocks to a muscled upper body.

To study and interpret cultural diversity, cultural anthropologists engage in two kinds of activity: ethnography based on fieldwork and ethnology based on cross-cultural comparison. Ethnography provides an account of a particular group, community, society, or culture. During ethnographic fieldwork, the ethnographer gathers data that he or she organizes, describes, analyzes, and interprets to build and present that account, which may be in the form of a book, an article, or a film.

Traditionally, ethnographers lived in small communities, where they studied local behavior, beliefs, customs, social life, economic activities, politics, and religion. Today, any ethnographer will recognize that such settings are increasingly exposed to and influenced by external forces and events. An anthropological perspective derived from ethnographic fieldwork often differs radically from that of economics or political science. Those fields focus on national and official organizations and policies and often on elites.

However, the groups that anthropologists traditionally have studied usually have been relatively poor and powerless. Ethnographers often observe discriminatory practices directed toward such people, who experience food and water shortages, dietary deficiencies, and other aspects of poverty. Political scientists tend to study programs that national planners develop, while anthropologists discover how these programs work on the local level. Communities and cultures are less isolated today than ever before.

In fact, as the anthropologist Franz Boas noted many years ago , orig. The study of global-local linkages is a prominent part of modern anthropology. What kinds of events generate global interest? Disasters provide one example. Think of Bhopal, Chernobyl, Chilean miners, and the earthquakes and tsunamis that have ravaged Thailand, Indonesia, and Japan. And consider the British royal family, especially the photogenic ones.

The wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton attracted million viewers—twice the population of the United Kingdom. The birth, public presentation, and naming of their newborn son in generated international interest.

And, of course, sports: Billions of people watched at least some of the London Summer Olympics. The Cricket World Cup is televised in over countries, to over 2. The title dates back to , a time of less globalization and more American provincialism. South Korea, Taiwan, and China have professional leagues. Elsewhere the sport has little mass appeal.

On the other hand, when we focus on the players in American baseball we see a multiethnic world in miniature. With its prominent Latino and Japanese players, American baseball appears to be more ethnically diverse than American football or basketball.


Mirror for Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

While people carry the assumption that human beings are equally the same all over the world, they fail to recognize that these acuities are misguided and erroneous. Such opinions assert that people share the same feelings, morals, objectives, and desires meaning they are virtually ready to adopt values, beliefs, and ideas from different parts of the world Kottak 1. While the writer accurately asserts that these assumptions are often erroneous, he fails to elucidate sufficiently on the cultural, desire and belief differences on a global scale. However, the author uses anthropology to highlight a different comparative cross-cultural standpoint because anthropology persistently compares the customs of one culture to another Kottak 1. Therefore, anthropology offers an ethnographic understanding of different societies that facilitates the veneration of other traditions and beliefs across the globe.


Cultural anthropology: appreciating cultural diversity


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