FORMALIZED MUSIC XENAKIS PDF

It is therefore n ot surprising that the presence or absence of the principle of causality, first in philosophy and then in the sciences, might influence musical co mp os ition. The e xplanation of the world, and consequently of the sonic phenomena which surround us or and profited from the enl argemen t which may be created, necessitated of the principle of causality, the basis of wh i ch enlargement is fo r med by the law of large numbers. This law i mpl ies an asymptotic evolution towards a stable sta te , towards a kind of goal, of stochos, whence comes the adjective "stochastic. These laws operate on isolated states or on sets of elements with the o perati ons , the most primitive of which arc the union, notated u, the intersection, notated n, and the n egation. Equivalence, implication, and quantifications are elem en t ary relations from which all current science can be constructed.

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It is therefore n ot surprising that the presence or absence of the principle of causality, first in philosophy and then in the sciences, might influence musical co mp os ition.

The e xplanation of the world, and consequently of the sonic phenomena which surround us or and profited from the enl argemen t which may be created, necessitated of the principle of causality, the basis of wh i ch enlargement is fo r med by the law of large numbers. This law i mpl ies an asymptotic evolution towards a stable sta te , towards a kind of goal, of stochos, whence comes the adjective "stochastic.

These laws operate on isolated states or on sets of elements with the o perati ons , the most primitive of which arc the union, notated u, the intersection, notated n, and the n egation. Equivalence, implication, and quantifications are elem en t ary relations from which all current science can be constructed. Music, then, may be defined as an organization of these elementary operations and rel at i ons between sonic entities or between functions of occupied by also for an alysis sonic entities.

We understand the first-rate position which is set theory, not only for the construction of new works, but and better comprehension stochastic c on stru c t io n or stochastlcs cannot be of the w orks of the past.

In the same way a an investigation of history wi t h the help of carried thro ug h without the help of logi c-t he queen of the sciences, and I would even venture to suggest, of the arts--or its mathematical form algebra. For e verything that is said here on the subject Free Stochastic Music 5 is also valid for all forms of art painting, sculpture, architecture, films, etc. From t his very general, fundamental point of view, from which we wish to examine and make music, primary time appears as a wax or clay on which opera tio ns and relati ons can be inscribed and engraved, first for the purposes of work, and then for communication with a third person.

Commutative, metric time symmetrical is subjected to the same logical laws and can therefore also aid organizational speculations.

What is remarkable is that these fundamental notions, which are necessary for construction, are found in m an from his tenderest age, and it is fa s ci n ating to follow their evolution as Jean Piaget1 has done. After this short preamble on generalities we shall enter into the details of an approach to musical composition which I have de v elo ped over several years.

I call it "stochastic," in honor ofprobabi1ity theory, which has served as a logi cal framework and as a method of resolving the conflicts and knots encountered. What, in fact, d oes a musical composition offer strictly on the cons t ru ction level? It o ffers a collection of sequences which it wishes to be causal. When, for simplification, the major scale implied its hierarchy of tonal functions-tonics, dominants, and subdominants-around which the other n ot es gravitated, it constructed, in a highly deterministic manner, linear processes, or melodies on the one hand, and simultaneous events, or chords, on the other.

What is paradoxical is that he did this in the modal field. He created a multimodal music which immediately found imitators in serial music. I t is from here that the postwar nco-serialists have drawn their inspiration. They could now, following the Vienna school and Messiaen, with some occasional borrowing from Stravinsky and Debussy, walk on with ears shut and proclaim a truth greater than the others. Other movements were growing stronger; chief among them was the systematic exploration of sonic entities, new instruments, and "noises.

This pavi l i o n. A r u l e d surface consisting of two conoids, a and d, is laid t h r o u g h the the right half of the "st o m a c h.

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Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition (Harmonologia Series, #6)

Jump to navigation Jump to search edition Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition is a book by Greek composer , architect , and engineer Iannis Xenakis in which he explains his motivation, philosophy, and technique for composing music with stochastic mathematical functions. It was published in Paris in as Musiques formelles: nouveaux principes formels de composition musicale as a special double issue of La Revue musicale and republished in an expanded edition in in Paris by Stock Musique. It was later translated into English with three added chapters and published in by Indiana University Press, republished in by Pendragon Press with a second edition published in , also by Pendragon. It has been described as a groundbreaking work. Musiques formelles: nouveaux principes formels de composition musicale. Special issue of La Revue musicale, nos.

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