I also find that some of the long, bizarre comments above seem to be coming from people who seem to have no lives. The same would work with Lorentzian signature. It simply doesnt happen. Sometimes a symmetry is spontaneously broken, but then garrdtt commutation relations are still valid; some of the generators are then non-linearly realized.

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An exceptionally simple theory of everything PDF. Thanks God. Update II: Roger Highfield whom we know from his article attacking the scientific method and claiming that Einstein may have started the rot has returned. In a new, equally breathtakingly silly article , he suggests that A.

Garrett Lisi is a new Einstein. Two months ago, I wrote about bad physicists and populism. You may see that virtually all of the myths I described are realized in this story.

Mr Highfield has written at least one more stupidity of the same magnitude - namely that the cosmologists are bringing the Universe closer to the doom by observing it.

Sensations are much more important for him than rational thinking or the truth. Highfield and at least tens of thousands of people are Google searching for this "new Einstein". It is surely cool but "cool" is not the same thing as "true". Its author, A. Garrett Lisi , claims to have found nothing less than a theory of everything.

An exceptionally simple one, for that matter. It may sound as a bold statement but from a genius of A. Because the work is based on the E8 group that I love, you bet that I have opened the paper. Reading the paper Needless to say, the visually intriguing and colorful paper is a huge joke.

The first place where I exploded in laughter was the equation 1. He is just so skillful that he can add up not only apples and oranges but also fields of all kinds you could ever think of. Every high school senior excited about physics should be able to see that the paper is just a long sequence of childish misunderstandings. I understood these things when I was Concerning the title, I present it as a joke but I agree with Freedom of Science that if the title is viewed seriously by some important readers and if the author allows it, it is a case of scientific fraud.

There is not a glimpse of physics in that paper. On the other hand, you find a lot of random assignments of particles to vertices of polytopes - something that you know from papers about the octopi. It is the same kind of "unification" as if you put stickers with elementary particles on a chessboard and argue that chess is the ultimate theory of everything.

Kindergarten stuff, indeed. Or let me give you a better analogy. Garrett Lisi and his close personal friends. He needs 18 more to reproduce the roots of E8 and make his theory complete. Click the picture for more details. The role of the E8 group in his picture is therefore completely unphysical. Because different components of the E8 multiplet are assumed to be particles with completely different properties, the E8 symmetry is broken at stage zero. It is an elementary fact that e. For A.

Garrett Lisi, this single line reflecting a simple calculation that has been done a century ago and that a fraction of freshmen learns is a topic for a page paper and an impressive albeit two-dimensional movie. Nude Socialist has already created a 2-minute commercial for this nonsense. The visual effect has nothing to do with physics. And mathematicians routinely create more sophisticated animations, see e. But I assure you that the E8 group is a pretty standard material that students learn in courses of group theory.

And there are millions of pictures like that. E8 is the biggest exceptional animal in the exciting ADE classification and a large portion of string theorists work with it every day. This stuff has been known for a century or so. For example, the E8 group itself was discovered by Wilhelm Killing click the picture in The basic facts about the E8 group have nothing to do with problems that physics has been solving in the last 50 years: they are just a part of the mathematical background that high-energy physicists are supposed to know.

Garrett Lisi remembered something from math classes he was taking years ago but he has forgotten virtually all of his physics classes. Be sure that every physicist who knows basics of his field agrees with me that everything that is nice about the paper has been known for a long time.

The way how Antony Garrett Lisi combines his spotty knowledge with ambitious claims mimicks the approach of thousands of other "amateur Einsteins". He was just luckier because a journalist has endorsed him.

You start with a non-compact real form of E8, namely E8 You embed a G2 into it. Its centralizer is a non-compact version of F4. Now, you embed the strong SU 3 into the G2 while the non-compact F4 acts as the source of a "graviweak" SO 7,1 group that contains SO 3,1 , a "gauge group" that is now fashionable in the circles of amateur physicists to "describe" gravity, and SO 4 , their source of cargo cult electroweak symmetry.

Of course, the SO 3,1 group mentioned a minute ago plays a different role in the vielbein formulation of general relativity than the Yang-Mills groups and the fact that these two kinds of a group cannot be merged is the content of the Coleman-Mandula theorem to be discussed at the end of my text. For people like A. Let me repeat the same idea differently. A unification of different forces and matter in physics is difficult because different force and matter particles have different properties, especially spin and statistics and other features that follow from them, e.

Garrett Lisi attacks the problem of unification by completely ignoring all these features that actually contain the whole problem. The technical statements that the decomposition etc. Except that it is completely crucial for physics that E8 in heterotic string theory is compact. Non-compact gauge groups would lead to ghosts and negative probabilities. Also, everyone knows that the fermions arise as chiral multiplets and not vector multiplets: they are simply not and cannot be a part of the gauge bundle.

Most importantly, no sane person has ever claimed that the E8 portion of the heterotic theory already contains gravity. That would be really silly. Also, if you have ever heard about "GUT" Grand Unified Theory , you should realize that unlike E6 and others, E8 cannot be a grand unified group because it only has real representations which is not good enough to create chiral fermions.

In string theory, E8 is only relevant because it is broken to a smaller subgroup by intrinsically stringy effects. Needless to say, Garrett Lisi has no idea what a "chiral fermion" or even "fermion" means so he is not worried about any of these "details". Endorsement system A few years ago, such a paper would almost surely be filtered out from hep-th.

Paul Ginsparg has introduced the endorsement system which was circumvented in this case and is likely to become a complete joke in the future. Well, we have seen that a completely continuous spectrum of people between serious physicists and manifest crackpots has been created and the recent fashionable trend is to accept an ever broader set of passionate amateurs and undereducated, intellectually challenged loons into the physics circles. This paper by A. Garrett Lisi had to be endorsed by someone.

If you read the acknowledgements, it is not hard to see possible answers. Some of those people such as Lee Smolin may endorse any crackpot paper because they are both endorsers and crackpots at the same moment.

Moreover, they have a vested interest to increase the proportion of similar papers on the arXiv because this is where they belong. As Lee Smolin recently pointed out, irrationality has been extremely useful for him in the past. If Ginsparg wants to prevent this possible collapse of his arXiv, he probably has to fine-tune the mechanisms a little bit and make sure that people who are ready to endorse papers like this one are simply not endorsers.

Otherwise you can be pretty sure that similar papers will eventually overrun the arXiv. Tony Smith is among the crackpots thanked to in the acknowledgements. Next time, he may also submit his own paper supported by similar endorsers. And maybe A. Garrett Lisi will become an endorser himself. There seems to be a whole industry of people who are just not getting it. So let me say a few words about the theorem.

They asked what symmetries "G" the scattering matrix of a physical theory can have. But if it is broken by effects of order percent, it is the end of the story. Moreover, full-fledged generalizations of the theorem exist for spaces with a nonzero cosmological constant. Coleman and Mandula have shown that a theory satisfying the necessary conditions above must contain a spinless excitation and they studied the scattering of several copies of such an excitation.

You can do it with various quantities and prove that a theory with these new kinds of symmetries must be non-interacting, which also means physically unacceptable and uninteresting. They also constrain the S-matrix dramatically but the interactions can nevertheless remain nonzero.

The more general theorem that takes supersymmetry into account and excludes other possible symmetries is called the Haag-Sohnius-Lopuszanski theorem. Gravitons have spin 2 while gauge bosons have spin 1. Nevertheless, it is a huge technical difference that certainly prevents you from combining the graviton and gauge bosons into the same multiplet unless you have supersymmetry. Some people - see e. If we use the vielbein approach to general relativity, the local Lorentz symmetry is an additional symmetry that is needed to make the new unphysical degrees of freedom in the vielbein decouple.

Diffeomorphisms and Yang-Mills symmetries and, correspondingly, graviton and gauge bosons can only be unified if the fundamental "coordinates" in the theory carry a nonzero spin. In string theory, it is true that the string field or the first-quantized wave function combines fields of different spins.

But the spin is only generated because the fundamental object, namely the string, is extended: extended objects such as strings simply can spin around their "axes". The expansion in the stringy oscillators - the Fourier modes of the coordinates and fermions over the string - generates internal angular momentum.

Alternatively, Kaluza-Klein scenarios also unify these things because the higher-dimensional metric tensor is decomposed into fields of different spins in four dimensions, including a gauge field.


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The complete pattern of all Standard Model particle charges in four dimensions may be projected down to two dimensions and plotted in a charge diagram. In the Spin 10 model, one generation of 16 fermions including left-handed electrons, neutrinos, three colors of up quarks, three colors of down quarks, and their anti-particles lives neatly in the complex-dimensional spinor representation space of Spin The combination of these 32 real fermions and 45 bosons, along with another U 1 Lie group corresponding to Peccei—Quinn symmetry , constitute the dimensional real compact exceptional Lie group, E6. This unusual algebraic structure, reminiscent of supersymmetry , of gauge fields and spinors combined in a simple Lie group, is characteristic of the exceptional groups.

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An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything



Garrett Lisi


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