KROPOTKIN CONQUEST OF BREAD PDF

Early life[ edit ] Pyotr Kropotkin was born in Moscow, into an ancient Russian princely family. His father, major general Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin , was a descendant of the Smolensk branch, [14] of the Rurik dynasty which had ruled Russia before the rise of the Romanovs. The years — witnessed a growth in the intellectual forces of Russia, and Kropotkin came under the influence of the new liberal-revolutionary literature, which largely expressed his own aspirations. Following a desire to "be someone useful", Kropotkin chose the difficult route of serving in a Cossack regiment in eastern Siberia.

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Start your review of The Conquest of Bread Write a review Shelves: socialism-communism , have , anarchism , radical-politics Anarchism: The name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfying of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being.

This is how Kropotkin Anarchism: The name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government — harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfying of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being.

This is how Kropotkin defined anarchism in , for the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britanica. Russian prince, geographer, and outstanding anarcho-Communist writer. Raised as Imperial Cadet, later a cavalry officer; studied mathematics and geography.

In visited Switzerland and joined the anarchist International Workers Association. Imprisoned for agitation in Russia in Escaped from jail and moved through England, Switzerland, and France where he was imprisoned for five years. Returned to Russia after the February Revolution. Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles 2. The Conquest of Bread 3.

The State: Its Role in History 4. Fields, Factories, and Workshops 5. Memoirs of a Revolutionist 6. Modern Science and Anarchism 7. Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution 8. The Modern State 9. Ethics: Origin and Development Of these, all but 8 can be easily obtained even today, a century and more after Kropotkin wrote them. Here on Goodreads, Conquest of Bread has been rated by over readers; 7 by over ; 5 by about ; a couple not on the list by about All others are near , or fewer.

I Our Riches. II Well-Being for All - What is meant by this, and how it differs from Communalism IV Expropriation - Why an anarchist revolution must expropriate things from those who claim "ownership" of things. V Food VI Dwellings VII Clothing - These three chapters lay out the reasons, methods, and justifications by which the common people may, on their own initiative and action, provide the essentials of food, dwellings, and clothing to all VIII Ways and Means - Why the current system will not and cannot supply for all IX The Need for Luxury - By no means will items of "luxury" be no longer available in an anarchist society.

There will be ample opportunity for workers to engage in production and distribution of such items for all who want them. X Agreeable Work - How it can come about, because of great increases in productivity in modern times, that no one will be forced to work as wage-slaves now do. Women will benefit as they will no longer be forced to work only in the home, as even less than a wage-slave.

XI Free Agreement - Arguments for, and examples of, the way in which free agreements among groups of people can effect the benefits which, some claim, can only be provided with a State which dictates. The State is not needed. XII Objections - How the objections urged against an anarchist society can be met XIII The Collectivist Wages System - Why it must come to pass that people in an anarchist society no longer be subject to different wages, depending on the type of work they do.

Rather than a description of "facts", it should be a science: "The study of the needs of mankind, and the means of satisfying them with the least possible waste of human energy. Beyond that, each can choose to devote effort to what interests them, be it art, science, the production of luxuries, or nothing at all. XVI The Decentralization of Industry - The concentration of particular industries as the specialization of certain peoples, countries, areas, is unnecessary and counterproductive in the modern world.

XVII Agriculture - This chapter is a detailed accounting of the acreage and human hours required, using modern agricultural methods, to allow the three and one-half million citizens of the two departments Seine, Seine-et-Oise round Paris, with their 1,, acres, to produce all the corn and cereals, milk, cattle, vegetables and fruit that the population requires.

Chiefly interesting for the way that Kropotkin argues foe the self-sufficiency of such a population, and the amount of the land left over for houses, roads, parks, and forests.

That is, "Communism" for Kropotkin is organization and living by the principles of the commune. Or, as Kropotkin himself says, it is "Communism without government — the Communism of the Free. It is the synthesis of the two ideals pursued by humanity throughout the ages — Economic and Political Liberty. He was not particularly happy with what he observed, but was of an age that he felt precluded him from attempting to actively engage in what was going on.

Here is a link to a first-hand account of a meeting that he had in with Lenin. Kropotkin contrasts this idea with that of "the Collectivists".

These are the followers of the other major anarchist theoretician of the second half of the nineteenth century, Mikail Bakunin , who is taken as the founder of "collectivist anarchism". Starting from this principle, such a society would find itself forced from the very outset to abandon all forms of wages.

This is an idea that Kropotkin brings up again and again. Introduced in chapter I Our Riches, he returns to it in chapter III: In the present state of industry, when everything is interdependent, when each branch of production is knit up with all the rest, the attempt to claim an Individualist origin for the products of industry is absolutely untenable.

The astonishing perfection attained by the textile or mining industries in civilized countries is due to the simultaneous development of a thousand other industries, great and small, to the extension of the railroad system, to inter-oceanic navigation, to the manual skill of thousands of workers, to a certain standard of culture reached by the working class as a whole — to the labours, in short, of men in every corner of the globe. The Italians who died of cholera while making the Suez Canal, or of anchyloses in the St.

Gothard Tunnel, and the Americans who were mowed down by shot and shell while fighting for the abolition of slavery, have helped to develop the cotton industry of France and England, as well as the work-girls who languish in the factories of Manchester and Rouen, and the inventor who following the suggestion of some worker succeeds in improving the looms.

How, then, shall we estimate the share of each in the riches which ALL contribute to amass? The property, factories, machines, farmland, roads, railways, buildings, housing, which have been financed, developed, manufactured, built by the toil and efforts of countless workers, inventors — many compensated richly for their capital contributions, vast numbers of others, particularly those who actually did the work, expended the effort given a pittance even nothing by which they could barely sustain themselves and their families … all these things must be looked up as the common inheritance of those alive today, not as the property of the descendants of those who have already been compensated to an unjust extent.

No need for government Men do not need to be told by social or political higher ups how to live, how to solve problems that require more than simply personal attention — there are ample examples of free associations of men and groups of men that have made significant decisions on how an important enterprise can be organized, and this has always been done simply through discussion, bargaining, and coming to an agreement on what would in fact benefit everyone concerned to the best extent.

This idea is explored most fully in XI Free Agreement. Kropotkin tells how the European railway network came into being through free agreements between the scores of separate companies that had developed small pieces of the system, then connected them together, established routes and schedules, figured out how to allow freight to move over the entire network without having to unload and reload at company "boundaries" — all without the intervention of any Central authority or State Agency.

He goes through many other examples of things that have been organized by free agreement of people who simply saw a need for something to be done, and did it: the way that the Dutch settled questions of canal access; the similar way that shipowners settled question of boat access along the Rhine; the establishment of the British Lifeboat Association, manned and financed by volunteer seamen; and the founding, staffing, organization, and activities of the Red Cross.

On revolutionary failures the Paris Commune In this instance, which is discussed in both the Preface which Kropotkin wrote in , and in different chapters of the original book, the beginning of the end occurred when groups of the revolutionaries separated off to make decisions which they deemed needed to be made FOR THE PEOPLE.

The "decision makers" begin to argue about what needs to be done, what rules and regulations need to be effected and put into place, and meanwhile … the people STARVE because their immediate daily NEEDS which are of course provided for the decision makers in their own privileged ways are completely disregarded. And so goes another failed revolution. Particularly, with various contemporary movements such as the Transition movement , which emphasize localized aspects of society, more support for local businesses, local food production, CSAs Community Supported Agriculture , local banking, and so forth Much of what Kropotkin says may be extremely applicable in some future.

A book to be passed on into that future. Very highly recommended. Next review: The Fall sorry to say,

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Peter Kropotkin

Background[ edit ] In , Kropotkin, with the help of some prominent left-wing intellectuals , donors and sympathizers, was released from French prison. Fearful of the anarchist scare that was gripping continental Europe following the assassination of Alexander II and wishing to focus more time on composing theory and arguing for his revolutionary ideals, Kropotkin moved to London in the same year. It was during this time of rapid literary output that Kropotkin wrote The Conquest of Bread, which became his most well-known attempt to systematically explain the essential parts of anarcho-communism. Following its publication in France, Kropotkin published a serialized version in English in the London anarchist journal Freedom. The book would later be collected and published as a book in France in and in England in Instead, Kropotkin asserts that every individual product is essentially the work of everyone since every individual relies on the intellectual and physical labor of those who came before them as well as those who built the world around them. Because of this, Kropotkin proclaims that every human deserves an essential right to well-being because every human contributes to the collective social product: [4] No more of such vague formulae as "The right to work", or "To each the whole result of his labour.

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The Bread Book?

Start your review of The Conquest of Bread Write a review Shelves: socialism-communism , have , anarchism , radical-politics Anarchism: The name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfying of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being. This is how Kropotkin Anarchism: The name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government — harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfying of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being. This is how Kropotkin defined anarchism in , for the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britanica. Russian prince, geographer, and outstanding anarcho-Communist writer. Raised as Imperial Cadet, later a cavalry officer; studied mathematics and geography. In visited Switzerland and joined the anarchist International Workers Association. Imprisoned for agitation in Russia in

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