THEODOLITE TRAVERSING PDF

Traverse Surveying is a popular method of surveying. This article includes the definition of traverse surveying along with its classification, errors in traversing, checks, the completed method of traversing and plotting of traverse survey. Definition Traversing is that type of survey in which a number of connected survey lines form the framework and the directions and lengths of the survey lines are measured with the help of an angle measuring instrument and tape or chain respectively. Types of Surveying There are two types of traverse surveying. They are: Closed traverse: When the lines form a circuit which ends at the starting point, it is known as a closed traverse.

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What is theodolite? Theodolite part, survey, Traversing What is theodolite? Theodolite parts, survey, Traversing In this article, we show all information about theodolites like parts of the theodolite, survey of theodolite, and classification of theodolite, theodolite traversing, and process of theodolite traversing.

An instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angle accurately is known as a theodolite. It is used for prolongation of survey lines, finding the difference in elevation and setting out engineering works requiring higher precision, i.

Classification of theodolites non-transit theodolite Transit theodolite A theodolite is called a transit theodolite if is telescope can be transited, for example it can revolve through a complete revolution about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. Theodolite survey The length of traverse legs measures directly on the ground by changing or taping according to the accuracy aimed at, and the nature of the ground.

The traverse angles, the angles, the angles between consecutive traverse legs are measured with a theodolite by setting up the instrument at each station in turn. Theodolite surveying Theodolite traverse A traverse is a series of connected lines whose lengths and directions measures in the field.

In a theodolite traverse, to directions measured with a theodolite. A theodolite traverse in commonly used for providing a horizontal control system to determine the relative positions of the various points on the surface of the earth. It especially uses for providing control for site surveys in urban areas where the triangulation is not feasible.

The equipment required for conducting a theodolite traverse will include a theodolite, a steel tape, two ranging poles, stakes, tacks, plumb bobs, chain pins, tripods, crayons, makers, an ax and a hammer.

The traverse may be an open traverse or a closed traverse. A closed traverse commonly uses in control survey, construction survey, property survey, and topographic survey. Theodolite traversing In this type of traversing, traverse legs measures by direct chaining on the ground a the traverse angles at every traverse stations measures accurately with a theodolite. The basic procedure for theodolite traversing is the same as that in any other method of traversing.

First reconnaissance has to conducted with a sketch drawn the terrain using the approximate location of traverse station then the important details are to pick up, the intervisibility of station to check. Theodolite traversing required station marking tools such as pegs.

Measure with a theodolite The method of repetition used to measure traverse angles to a finer degree of accuracy than that achievable with the least count of the vernier fitted on the theodolite.

In this method, an angle measure there or four times by keeping the vernier clamp when sighting at the back station. While swinging from froward station to back station, the upper plate is let loose and made free to rotate. Thus an angle reading mechanically adds as many times as the number of repetitions. The difference of the firest and the last reading five the integrate traverse angle and the average traverse angle then obtained by dividing the integrated angle by the number of repetitions.

Fieldwork during a theodolite traversing Reconnaissance Selection and marking of stations Measurement fo traverse legs.

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To be familiar with the checks and errors in a closed traves and solve them. To be familiar with various types and methods of traves surveying fot detailing. To know well about the travese computation and be fluent in it. When the lines form a circuit which ends at the starting points, it is known as closed traverse. It the circuit ends else where, it is said to be an open traverse. The close traverse is suitable for locating the boundaries of lakes, wood etc and for the survey of large araes, whereas open traverse is suitable for surveying a long narrow strip of land as required for a road or canal or the coast line.

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